Which Battery is used in Mobile Phones?

what type of batteries is in smartphone

Updated: July 13, 2023

Inside each phone, there is a rechargeable energy source that provides the owner with mobility and freedom of action. This article will let you know about the types of batteries for smartphones, service life, storage and operation rules, as well as where to put used batteries.

What are the main two types of battery?

Two types of lithium-based batteries are used in phones, smartphones, tablets and other mobile electronics: lithium-ion and lithium-polymer ones. The design of both types of batteries is the same except for the electrolyte ones. Lithium-ion batteries use a liquid electrolyte inside, and lithium-polymer batteries use a dry or gel-like electrolyte. The use of solid electrolyte has simplified the production of batteries of different shapes and up to 2 mm thick.

lithium ion battery
Lithium ion battery.

The batteries are available in removable and built-in versions. The difference is that to remove the built-in battery, you need to disassemble the phone case, which will require the appropriate tool, experience and skills. While removing the removable battery, it is enough to remove the cover, which is usually fixed by plastic latches.

Currently, most mobile electronics are available with a built-in power supply. Removable batteries are found only in budget smartphones and some push-button phones.

Principle of operation of battery

The phone battery works due to chemical reactions occurring inside. During charging, lithium ions move from the positive electrode to the negative one. When discharging, the reverse process occurs, the positive lithium ions return from the negative to the positive electrode.

The chemical structure of the battery is sensitive to current and voltage. Exceeding the minimum or maximum voltage value leads to the destruction of the battery, up to fire. Also, at different stages of charging, it is necessary to supply current with different strengths. A deeply discharged battery shall be charged with a low current until the minimum permissible value occurs. Further, the current value is allowed to be raised and gradually lowered as the battery is filled with energy. The control board, which is built into all telephone batteries, deals with the regulation of such complex processes for a person.

The control board contains a controller that turns off the supply and returns the energy when the limits allowed for the battery are reached. The controller also regulates the current strength at different stages of charging. The availability of such protective mechanisms prevents the destruction of the battery and increases the service life.

Battery life

The battery life is affected by the time and working conditions. Intensive operation in the form of regular charging and discharging leads to wear, which is manifested in a decrease in the maximum capacity of the battery. Without loading, the safety margin also decreases, which is facilitated by the chemical reactions occurring inside. Therefore, it does not make sense to stock up on batteries for the future, since under ideal storage conditions, the annual loss of capacity will be 3-5%.

On average, the phone battery lasts 3-5 years. Usually, during this period, the owners have time to change their mobile devices due to obsolescence. At the same time, careful use allows you to save the phone battery and save up to 75% of the original capacity after 5 years of operation. Therefore, many smartphone owners use the battery until there are clear signs of a dying battery. These signs include reduced self-containment, loss of charge in the cold, shutdown and reboot. Complete wear and tear is also one of the main reasons why cell phone batteries swell.

lithium-ion battery in smartphone
Built-in battery in the phone.

Proper use and storage of batteries

For the safety and security of the mobile power supply, it is important to use lithium-ion batteries correctly:

  • Store the power supply with half a charge is 40-60%.
  • To charge, use only the original charger or a high-quality analog.
  • Do not allow the battery to be deeply discharged and fully charged. It is optimal to use the battery charge in the range of 30-80%.
  • Do not leave the battery completely discharged for a long time. If there is no possibility for recharging, it is better to turn off the power for 5-10% of the remaining charge.
  • It is advisable not to leave the phone charging at night.
  • When charging, discharging and storing, it is desirable to keep the battery temperature in the range of 0 to +30°C.

What to do after replacing the battery

Many owners, after replacing the battery, produce unnecessary 3-4 cycles of full charging and discharging. Often such a recommendation is given by poorly informed sellers, mistakenly believing that this way the power supply will work at full capacity. In reality, such actions only shorten the service life, since there is no memory effect in lithium-ion and lithium-polymer power sources. Therefore, after replacing the battery, it is not necessary to perform additional manipulations. An exception is if the battery charge is not displayed correctly. In this case, it is sufficient to calibrate the battery.

But the old battery needs to be disposed of. Because the battery contains a lot of harmful impurities for the environment. Up to 80% of the battery components are also suitable for reuse after removal.

What is the biggest problem with lithium batteries?

The biggest problem with lithium batteries is the fire hazard and rapid aging due to high temperatures. Therefore, all lithium batteries can only be operated within a certain temperature range and with a special charging algorithm.

The following causes can lead to battery combustion and explosion:

  • Leaking of the battery case.
  • Reversal of polarity.
  • Short circuit inside the battery.
  • Overheating.
  • High ambient temperatures.
  • Charging at high or low temperatures.
  • Overcharging.
  • Charging with poor quality or damaged chargers.

All lithium batteries must not be operated without the safety module. A primitive protection module consists of one or more chips. The chip stops discharging or charging the battery when the minimum or maximum voltage is reached. Therefore, the protection module prevents the battery from overcharging and from failing if the battery is deeply discharged. Advanced protection modules contain temperature sensors. If the battery temperature is exceeded, then the protection module can limit the charging capacity or stop supplying power until the temperature stabilizes.

During operation, the lithium battery must be securely fixed inside or outside of the mobile device’s casing. Failure to do so may result in a depressurization of the case, followed by a fire. As lithium reacts quickly with air and ignites. Do not allow water to enter, as water can cause the battery to short circuit and explode.

The lithium battery should not be kept near open flames or heating appliances. Operation and charging at high or low ambient temperatures should also be restricted. Otherwise, battery degradation and wear will accelerate. In the worst case the battery may explode due to overheating.

Optimal operation, charging and discharging of lithium batteries at room temperature. Use of fast charging or wireless charging technology will heat up the battery and accelerate degradation. Frequent full discharging also shortens battery life. Long storage time in a fully discharged state will destroy the battery.

Used lithium batteries are toxic waste. Therefore, lithium batteries, like other types of batteries, need to be disposed of. Lithium batteries can also be recycled to make new batteries and reduce environmental pollution.

Most modern mobile devices use lithium ion (sometimes called Li-ion) batteries, which consist of two main parts: a pair of electrodes and the electrolyte between them. The materials that these electrodes are made of varies (they can be lithium, graphite, or even nanowires), but they all rely on the chemistry of lithium. 

Source: https://www.pcworld.com/article/457191/mobile-batteries-everything-you-need-to-know.html

FAQ

Which metal is used in mobile phone batteries?

The main metal used is lithium.

Which type of battery used in mobile?

Lithium-ion or lithium polymer.

Which type of battery is not used in mobile phones?

None other than lithium-ion and lithium-polymer.

Is nickel-cadmium battery used in mobile phones?

No because of many limitations. For example, low storage capacity. Presence of memory effect.

Which type of battery is best for mobile phones?

Lithium-ion or lithium polymer.

Which is better Li-ion or Li Po?

Neither. They are two identical batteries with a different type of electrolyte – liquid and gel.

Is there a better battery than lithium-ion?

Batteries based on graphene. But so far such batteries are only in development and are not available for mass use.

Which mobile battery is long-lasting?

The greater the capacity of the battery, the longer it will last compared to a similar battery of lower capacity.

Which is better polymer or ion battery?

Neither one nor the other. They are the same battery with a different electrolyte condition.

What is the most efficient battery?

Lithium-based battery with high capacity.

Do cell phone batteries need to be replaced?

If the battery has reached the end of its life, then the battery should be replaced.

What can old cell phone batteries be used for?

To power other devices that require self-contained power. At the same time, the power of each type of device is specific, so not every battery can be used.

What are the signs of a bad cell phone battery?

There are several signs that it is time to replace the battery:
1) Your phone works less and needs to be charged more often.
2) Your phone suddenly shuts down at half charge.
3) Your phone shuts down in the cold or in the heat.

Is it better to replace the battery or buy a new phone?

Replacing the battery is always cheaper than buying a new phone. However, it is difficult to find an original battery and the new battery will be worse than the one originally installed, but better than the worn-out one.

When should I replace my Android Battery?

When the phone starts to turn off at half charge. When the battery life decreases significantly.

What are the different sizes of batteries?

The difference in size, physical size and weight.

Which is better Li-Ion or Li Po?

Both types of batteries contain certain advantages and disadvantages. Li-Ion batteries are cheaper to make, so Li-Ion batteries are more common in various electronics. Li-Po batteries are more expensive to make. However, Li-Po batteries can be made in any size and thickness. And if the battery case is damaged, it is less likely to catch fire.

Which type of mobile battery is best?

The best type of lithium-based mobile battery is Li-Ion or Li Po. Compared to other types of batteries, such as Ni-Cd and Ni-MH, lithium batteries have a higher energy density. There is also no memory effect and low self-discharge.

Why is lithium battery used in mobile phones?

Lithium batteries can store more energy in the same size compared to other types of batteries. This makes it possible to design compact devices with long battery life. Lithium batteries are also less demanding to use.

Does Li Po last longer than Li ion?

The life of any type of battery is measured by complete charge cycles. Li-ion batteries can last 500-800 cycles, but Li-Po batteries have 150-200 more cycles. Therefore, Li-Po batteries can potentially last longer. However, some Li-ion batteries of well-known brands LG, Samsung and Panasonic can also withstand up to 1000 charge-discharge cycles. In addition, in order to achieve the full life cycle it is necessary to use the battery properly.

Can I replace Li ion with Li Po?

Both battery types are interchangeable. The basic requirement for replacing the battery type is the physical size and weight.

Which type of battery has the longest life?

Lithium titanium batteries have the longest life. The battery life is approximately 15,000 discharge/recharge cycles. In addition the batteries can be used in a wide temperature range of -60 °C to +60 °C or -76 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit. Iron-phosphate batteries: LiFePO4, LiFe, LFP, IFR show an even good service life. Battery life is approximately 1500-3000 cycles, and with careful operation up to 8000 cycles.

Why are lithium batteries not allowed?

Lithium is extremely reactive and on contact with air it is highly flammable. For safety reasons, lithium batteries are not allowed to be transported in aircraft and some other types of ground vehicles.

How long does a Li Po 5000 mAH battery last?

The lifespan is affected by usage conditions. With careful use, a battery can last 5-10 years. However, after 5 years of careful use, the battery may lose up to 30% of its capacity. With heavy use and regular use of fast charging the battery will not last more than two years.

Can a LiPo battery be overcharged?

Lithium polymer batteries, like other types of batteries, may not be overcharged. For this purpose all batteries are equipped with a protection module. A chip in the protection module limits the charge and discharge of the battery to the optimum values. Therefore, under normal circumstances, the battery cannot be charged more than it should be.

Do all phones use lithium?

All phones, tablets and other mobile electronics use lithium-based batteries – either Li-ion or Li-Po. Lithium-based batteries offer the best capacity at the same size compared to other types of batteries. Lithium batteries are also flexible in use and have a long service life of up to 800 charge-discharge cycles with Li-ion and up to 1000 cycles with Li-Po.

Do lithium batteries still explode?

Lithium batteries may explode or ignite under certain conditions. Fire occurs when the battery is depressurized and the battery pack is damaged. Short circuits, overheating and overcharging can also cause a battery to explode. Therefore all lithium batteries have a built-in protection module or work in devices with an external protection module.

Is lithium or zinc battery better?

A lithium battery is better than a zinc battery. A lithium battery will hold more energy and have twice the voltage rating. In addition, the life of a zinc battery is about 250-350 cycles, while a lithium battery has at least 500-600 cycles. Zinc accumulators do not contain poisonous cadmium and do not ignite in the air. At a rated voltage of 1.6 volts, the zinc battery performs better than a 1.3 volt NiMh battery.

Do Samsung phones use the same battery?

Each battery is designed based on the size of the phone’s body. Some batteries are compatible with one or more other Samsung phone models. Sometimes the battery is the same size but the connector is different. Other times, the connector is the same and the length or thickness of the battery does not allow the battery to fit into the phone.

Can a battery last 10 years?

With careful use of the battery and not a heavy load some batteries last up to 10-15 years. However, the 10-year battery loses up to 50-70% of its original capacity. So a phone with such a battery does not work consistently or for a limited time.

Does Samsung make their own batteries?

Samsung designs and manufactures different types of batteries. The most popular batteries are the 18650. Samsung also makes batteries for its own phones and tablets and also makes custom batteries for other companies.

Which Android phone is best for battery life?

The best battery life is in smartphones with a high-capacity battery and an economical mobile platform. For example, Motorola Moto G60 or Lenovo K12 Pro.

Is lithium the future?

Lithium batteries are still the most efficient compared to other types of batteries. Lithium batteries can hold the most energy for the same size. Manufacturers are using new types of materials and alloys to further increase density. At the same time, scientists are actively looking for new ways to efficiently store energy. Experiments are being conducted with combinations of different elements and alloys.

What will replace Li ion?

The discovery of a new chemical element or the development of a particular alloy that can hold more energy can replace lithium-ion batteries. The economic effect of such a battery is not unimportant. To fully or partially replace lithium batteries, the new battery must be efficient and not expensive. Often the cost of manufacturing a battery prevents a new type of battery from entering the market.

Conclusion

The article describes in detail which batteries are used in phones and what the difference between them is. In particular, what types of batteries are available, how they work and how long they serve. As well as how to operate and store power sources, and what else to do after replacing the battery.

What questions do you have? Leave messages in the comments below this article.

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About the author

Alex Gustman

Hi,
My name is Alexander.
I am the author of articles, reviews and videos on the YouTube channel of Androidncomp.com. I have been testing various electronic devices, mobile games and Android applications since 2012.

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