Which Battery is used in Mobile Phones?

what type of batteries is in smartphone

by Alex Gustman

Updated: July 19, 2021

Inside each phone, there is a rechargeable energy source that provides the owner with mobility and freedom of action. This article will let you know about the types of batteries for smartphones, service life, storage and operation rules, as well as where to put used batteries.

What are the main two types of battery?

Two types of lithium-based batteries are used in phones, smartphones, tablets and other mobile electronics: lithium-ion and lithium-polymer ones. The design of both types of batteries is the same except for the electrolyte ones. Lithium-ion batteries use a liquid electrolyte inside, and lithium-polymer batteries use a dry or gel-like electrolyte. The use of solid electrolyte has simplified the production of batteries of different shapes and up to 2 mm thick.

lithium ion battery

The batteries are available in removable and built-in versions. The difference is that to remove the built-in battery, you need to disassemble the phone case, which will require the appropriate tool, experience and skills. While removing the removable battery, it is enough to remove the cover, which is usually fixed by plastic latches.

Currently, most mobile electronics are available with a built-in power supply. Removable batteries are found only in budget smartphones and some push-button phones.

Principle of operation of battery

The phone battery works due to chemical reactions occurring inside. During charging, lithium ions move from the positive electrode to the negative one. When discharging, the reverse process occurs, the positive lithium ions return from the negative to the positive electrode.

The chemical structure of the battery is sensitive to current and voltage. Exceeding the minimum or maximum voltage value leads to the destruction of the battery, up to fire. Also, at different stages of charging, it is necessary to supply current with different strengths. A deeply discharged battery shall be charged with a low current until the minimum permissible value occurs. Further, the current value is allowed to be raised and gradually lowered as the battery is filled with energy. The control board, which is built into all telephone batteries, deals with the regulation of such complex processes for a person.

The control board contains a controller that turns off the supply and returns the energy when the limits allowed for the battery are reached. The controller also regulates the current strength at different stages of charging. The availability of such protective mechanisms prevents the destruction of the battery and increases the service life.

Battery life

The battery life is affected by the time and working conditions. Intensive operation in the form of regular charging and discharging leads to wear, which is manifested in a decrease in the maximum capacity of the battery. Without loading, the safety margin also decreases, which is facilitated by the chemical reactions occurring inside. Therefore, it does not make sense to stock up on batteries for the future, since under ideal storage conditions, the annual loss of capacity will be 3-5%.

On average, the phone battery lasts 3-5 years. Usually, during this period, the owners have time to change their mobile devices due to obsolescence. At the same time, careful use allows you to save the phone battery and save up to 75% of the original capacity after 5 years of operation. Therefore, many smartphone owners use the battery until there are clear signs of a dying battery. These signs include reduced self-containment, loss of charge in the cold, shutdown and reboot. Complete wear and tear is also one of the main reasons why cell phone batteries swell.

lithium-ion battery in smartphone

Proper use and storage of batteries

For the safety and security of the mobile power supply, it is important to use lithium-ion batteries correctly:

  • Store the power supply with half a charge is 40-60%.
  • To charge, use only the original charger or a high-quality analog.
  • Do not allow the battery to be deeply discharged and fully charged. It is optimal to use the battery charge in the range of 30-80%.
  • Do not leave the battery completely discharged for a long time. If there is no possibility for recharging, it is better to turn off the power for 5-10% of the remaining charge.
  • It is advisable not to leave the phone charging at night.
  • When charging, discharging and storing, it is desirable to keep the battery temperature in the range of 0 to +30°C.

What to do after replacing the battery

Many owners, after replacing the battery, produce unnecessary 3-4 cycles of full charging and discharging. Often such a recommendation is given by poorly informed sellers, mistakenly believing that this way the power supply will work at full capacity. In reality, such actions only shorten the service life, since there is no memory effect in lithium-ion and lithium-polymer power sources. Therefore, after replacing the battery, it is not necessary to perform additional manipulations. An exception is if the battery charge is not displayed correctly. In this case, it is sufficient to calibrate the battery.

But the old power supply needs to be disposed of. Because the battery contains a lot of harmful impurities for the environment. Up to 80% of the battery components are also suitable for reuse after removal.

Conclusion

The article describes in detail which batteries are used in phones and what the difference between them is. In particular, what types of batteries are available, how they work and how long they serve. As well as how to operate and store power sources, and what else to do after replacing the battery.

What questions do you have? Leave messages in the comments below this article.

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About the author 

Alex Gustman


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